1. States must protect the right to protest in law, including:

a) Ratifying and giving effect to all relevant international and regional human rights treaties, through incorporation to their domestic legislation or otherwise;

b) Adopting clear legal, regulatory, and policy frameworks for the protection of the right to protest, in full compliance with international standards and best practice, and with the full and effective participation of civil society and other concerned stakeholders at all stages of their development;

c) Providing for sufficient safeguards against the violation of the right to protest and for prompt, full, and effective scrutiny of the validity of the restriction by an independent court, tribunal or other independent adjudicatory body; and

d) Ensure that effective remedies for violations of the right to protest are available, including adequate redress through criminal and civil law processes, as well as precautionary measures and non-judicial remedies, such as those awarded by dedicated regulators and agencies, national human rights institutions and/or ombudspersons.

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