1) States should ensure that all decision-making processes by public authorities relating to protests are transparent, accessible and comply with international due process standards. In particular, they should ensure that the protesters receive timely notice of any regulatory decisions with justified reasons and that they have recourse to prompt and effective remedy through administrative and/or judicial review.

2) States should investigate, prosecute, and ensure accountability for human rights violations committed in the context of protests. Investigations and prosecutions must be effective, speedy and carried out by independent judicial or adjudicatory bodies, and capable of bringing perpetrators, instigators and those overseeing violations to account through criminal or disciplinary proceedings as appropriate;

3) States must ensure accessible, effective and cost-free remedies for violations of the rights of protesters, in particular through criminal and civil law processes, and should include, inter alia, damages, restitution, public apologies, guarantees of non-repetition or precautionary measures, as well as remedies awarded by human rights institutions and/or ombudspersons.

4) States should ensure in their legislation and practice that at the very least:

a) Policing techniques and any use of force during protests is subject to independent, impartial and prompt review, and, where appropriate, investigation and disciplinary or criminal sanction as per paragraph 2;

b) The use of policing techniques and any equipment, including digital and surveillance tools, used in policing protests, is transparent and open to public scrutiny. States should establish independent inquiries to examine, inter alia:

i) Allegations of injuries caused by the use of less-lethal weapons. Inquiries should include independent medical, scientific, and judicial experts, who study and report on the dangers of less-lethal weapons and make recommendations about the effective regulation and lawful deployment and use of such weapons with a view to increasingly restricting the use of weapons;

ii) The use of any surveillance technologies, so that the public can assess the manner and frequency of their use, the justifications for and the necessity and proportionality of that use, and whether they are being used for improper or expanded purposes

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