1) Everyone should have the freedom to choose the manner and form of a protest, including its duration.

2) Non-violent direct action should be considered a legitimate form of protest.

3) States should refrain from:

a) Introducing time limits on the duration of protests in certain locations. Any time restrictions must be introduced after an individualised assessment in line with the test set out in Principle 4;

b) Imposing blanket bans on the making and use of temporary structures and the use of tools that enhance amplification of protest messages, in particular visual or audio tools. Any restrictions must be necessary and proportionate, be based on grounds recognised under international human rights law and on individualised assessments in line with the test set out in Principle 4;

c) Prohibiting individuals from concealing their physical identity during protests. Any limitations on anonymity in protests, both online and offline, should be justified on the basis of an individualised suspicion of a serious criminal offence in line with the test set in Principle 4. In addition, they should be subject to strong procedural safeguards.

4) Everyone should be allowed to use digital technologies in protest. States should promote and facilitate access to digital technologies, and should not restrict their use in protests. In particular:

a) Kill-switch measures (cutting off access to the internet and mobile telephony traffic), geo-targeted or technology-specific interference or hindering connectivity, should not be applied in response to protests as these are always a disproportionate restriction on the right to freedom of expression, and have serious repercussions beyond protests, including for the protection of other human rights;

b) Any restriction on the use of digital technologies, including the internet, social media and mobile telephony, in protest should be in line with the test set out in Principle 4 and subject to strong procedural safeguards.

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